Scientific Studies Regarding Reiki


Not every article ever written on Reiki is included here, this is a sampling.
If you find any other articles I would love to include them in this list.
If there are any errors in links also let me know so I can try and correct them.

Thanks, I greatly appreciate it!

Some of these articles taken from PubMed and other sources have abstracts and sometimes they don't that is why you only see titles and authors.

1. J Palliat Med. 2013 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]
A Canadian Experience of Integrating Complementary Therapy in a Hospital Palliative Care Unit.
Berger L, Tavares M, Berger B.
Source 1 University of Queensland School of Medicine , Brisbane, Australia .
Abstract Background: The provision of complementary therapy in palliative care is rare in Canadian hospitals. An Ontario hospital's palliative care unit developed a complementary therapy pilot project within the interdisciplinary team to explore potential benefits. Massage, aromatherapy, Reiki, and Therapeutic Touch™ were provided in an integrated approach. This paper reports on the pilot project, the results of which may encourage its replication in other palliative care programs. Objectives: The intentions were (1) to increase patients'/families' experience of quality and satisfaction with end-of-life care and (2) to determine whether the therapies could enhance symptom management. Results: Data analysis (n=31) showed a significant decrease in severity of pain, anxiety, low mood, restlessness, and discomfort (p<0.01, 95% confidence interval); significant increase in inner stillness/peace (p<0.01, 95% confidence interval); and convincing narratives on an increase in comfort. The evaluation by staff was positive and encouraged continuation of the program. Conclusions: An integrated complementary therapy program enhances regular symptom management, increases comfort, and is a valuable addition to interdisciplinary care.
PMID:24020920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2. Omega (Westport). 2013;67(1-2):227-32.
Use of complementary therapies in hospice and palliative care.
Vandergrift A.
Visiting Nurse Association of Central Connecticut, Inc., USA.
As society has become increasingly inquisitive about complementary therapies, various sectors of the medical community have begun to incorporate complementary therapies into their practice, studying their impact on client health and effectiveness in treating specific symptoms. This article describes the design and initial findings from a 1-year review of the implementation of massage and Reiki therapies on patients in a small hospice and palliative care program in central Connecticut. Over the course of 1 year, 114 massage sessions were provided to 52 different patients, all of which included Reiki. After completion of these sessions, patients were evaluated for changes in symptoms such as pain reduction, ease in breathing, stress/anxiety reduction, and increased relaxation, with the results being predominantly beneficial.
PMID:23977801 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. BMC Nephrol. 2013 Jun 21;14:129. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-14-129.
Reiki and related therapies in the dialysis ward: an evidence-based and ethical discussion to debate if these complementary and alternative medicines are welcomed or banned.
Ferraresi M, Clari R, Moro I, Banino E, Boero E, Crosio A, Dayne R, Rosset L, Scarpa A, Serra E, Surace A, Testore A, Colombi N, Piccoli BG.
SS Nephrology ASOU, san Luigi (regione Gonzole 10), Orbassano 10043, Torino, Italy.
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAMs) are increasingly practiced in the general population; it is estimated that over 30% of patients with chronic diseases use CAMs on a regular basis. CAMs are also used in hospital settings, suggesting a growing interest in individualized therapies. One potential field of interest is pain, frequently reported by dialysis patients, and seldom sufficiently relieved by mainstream therapies. Gentle-touch therapies and Reiki (an energy based touch therapy) are widely used in the western population as pain relievers.By integrating evidence based approaches and providing ethical discussion, this debate discusses the pros and cons of CAMs in the dialysis ward, and whether such approaches should be welcomed or banned.
In spite of the wide use of CAMs in the general population, few studies deal with the pros and cons of an integration of mainstream medicine and CAMs in dialysis patients; one paper only regarded the use of Reiki and related practices. Widening the search to chronic pain, Reiki and related practices, 419 articles were found on Medline and 6 were selected (1 Cochrane review and 5 RCTs updating the Cochrane review). According to the EBM approach, Reiki allows a statistically significant but very low-grade pain reduction without specific side effects. Gentle-touch therapy and Reiki are thus good examples of approaches in which controversial efficacy has to be balanced against no known side effect, frequent free availability (volunteer non-profit associations) and easy integration with any other pharmacological or non pharmacological therapy. While a classical evidence-based approach, showing low-grade efficacy, is likely to lead to a negative attitude towards the use of Reiki in the dialysis ward, the ethical discussion, analyzing beneficium (efficacy) together with non maleficium (side effects), justice (cost, availability and integration with mainstream therapies) and autonomy (patients' choice) is likely to lead to a permissive-positive attitude.
This paper debates the current evidence on Reiki and related techniques as pain-relievers in an ethical framework, and suggests that physicians may wish to consider efficacy but also side effects, contextualization (availability and costs) and patient's requests, according also to the suggestions of the Society for Integrative Oncology (tolerate, control efficacy and side effects).
PMID:23799960 [PubMed - in process] PMCID:PMC3694469

4. J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Jun;19(6):518-26. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0136. Epub 2012 Dec 4.
Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners.
Baldwin AL, Rand WL, Schwartz GE.
Laboratory for the Advances in Consciousness and Health, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
The study objective was to determine whether Reiki practice increases the electromagnetic field strength from the heart and hands of Reiki practitioners.
This study repeated experiments performed 20 years ago that detected exceptionally high-strength electromagnetic fields (100 nT) from the hands of several energy healers. The equipment used was far more sensitive than in the original studies.
Using a Magnes 2500 WH SQUID, the electromagnetic field from the hands and heart of each of 3 Reiki masters was measured when they were (1) not practicing Reiki, (2) sending Reiki to a distant person, and (3) sending Reiki to a person in the room. Similar measurements were made on 4 Reiki-naïve volunteers before and after they received a Reiki training/attunement enabling them to self-administer Reiki.
The study setting was the Scripps Institute, San Diego, CA.
Magnetic field intensity of hands and heart recorded over 5-minute sessions with corresponding frequency spectra.
For all subjects, under all conditions, sensors closest to the heart and the hands produced spikes of 2 pT corresponding to the heartbeat. Recordings from 2 Masters and 1 volunteer showed a low-intensity sine wave oscillation of 0.25-0.3 Hz (intensity 0.1-0.5 pT) whether or not they were practicing Reiki. This oscillation probably reflected respiratory sinus arrhythmia, judged by comparison with recent previous studies. These signals were not detected in the original studies. In the current study, no electromagnetic field intensities greater than 3 pT were observed in any of the recordings.
Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands. Alternatively, it is possible that energy healing is stimulated by tuning into an external environmental radiation, such as the Schumann resonance, which was blocked in the present study by the strong magnetic shielding surrounding the SQUID.
PMID:23210468 [PubMed - in process]

5. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2013 Feb;19(1):50-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.08.001. Epub 2012 Sep 27.
Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: a pilot program.
Kundu A, Dolan-Oves R, Dimmers MA, Towle CB, Doorenbos AZ.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, WA, United States.
To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant's feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child's care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:23337565 [PubMed - in process]

6. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2012 Jun;29(4):290-4. doi: 10.1177/1049909111420859. Epub 2011 Oct 13.
The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit.
Birocco N, Guillame C, Storto S, Ritorto G, Catino C, Gir N, Balestra L, Tealdi G, Orecchia C, Vito GD, Giaretto L, Donadio M, Bertetto O, Schena M, Ciuffreda L.
SC Oncologia Medica, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy.
Reiki is a system of natural healing techniques administered by laying of hands and transferring energy from the Reiki practitioner to the recipient. We investigated the role of Reiki in the management of anxiety, pain and global wellness in cancer patients. Building on the results of a pilot project conducted between 2003 and 2005 by a volunteer association at our hospital, a wider, 3-year study was conducted at the same center. The volunteer Reiki practitioners received 2 years of theory and practical training. The study population was 118 patients (67 women and 51 men; mean age, 55 years) with cancer at any stage and receiving any kind of chemotherapy. Before each session, the nurses collected the patient's personal data and clinical history. Pain and anxiety were evaluated according to a numeric rating scale by the Reiki practitioners. Each session lasted about 30 min; pain and anxiety scores were recorded using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), together with a description of the physical feelings the patients perceived during the session. All 118 patients received at least 1 Reiki treatment (total number, 238). In the subgroup of 22 patients who underwent the full cycle of 4 treatments, the mean VAS anxiety score decreased from 6.77 to 2.28 (P <.000001) and the mean VAS pain score from 4.4 to 2.32 (P = .091). Overall, the sessions were felt helpful in improving well-being, relaxation, pain relief, sleep quality and reducing anxiety. Offering Reiki therapy in hospitals could respond to patients' physical and emotional needs.
PMID:21998438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. J Holist Nurs. 2013 May 17. [Epub ahead of print]
The Feasibility of a Holistic Wellness Program for HIV/AIDS Patients Residing in a Voluntary Inpatient Treatment Program.
Morgan V.
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
The purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of an ongoing holistic wellness program in a residential facility treating persons with HIV/AIDS. The goal was to create a voluntary, four week holistic wellness intensive within the established inpatient behavioral health treatment program. Participants were given practicable holistic self care tools to effectively manage HIV related symptoms, general medical issues, addiction, depression, stress and anxiety. The program incorporated evidence-based holistic activities including yoga, therapeutic dance, meditation, Reiki, and reflective journaling. Narrative survey results and post-program evaluation support that an ongoing holistic wellness program within the existing treatment model is feasible and could have numerous potential beneficial effects. This project clearly exemplified the ideal opportunity for holistic nurses to implement innovative holistic interventions within the current healthcare delivery system. It is the author's observation that future studies with a larger participant group to further examine measurable benefits can lend valuable information and insight into the future development of holistic wellness programs for residential treatment facilities.

8. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:672097. doi: 10.1155/2013/672097. Epub 2013 Apr 22.
Complementary and alternative medicine and cardiovascular disease: an evidence-based review.
Rabito MJ, Kaye AD.
Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, 1542 Tulane Avenue, Room 656, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans.
PMID: 23710229 [PubMed] PMCID:PMC3654705

9. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2013 Mar;30(2):216-7. doi: 10.1177/1049909112469275. Epub 2012 Dec 5.
Symptomatic improvement reported after receiving reiki at a cancer infusion center.
Marcus DA, Blazek-O'Neill B, Kopar JL.
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15206, USA.
To evaluate patient-perceived benefits from receiving Reiki at a cancer infusion center.
During a 6-month period, adults at a university hospital receiving Reiki through volunteer services were invited to complete a survey asking about perceived changes after Reiki. Changes in pain, mood, distress, sleep, and appetite were rated on a 5-point scale from no benefit to great benefit. Surveys were distributed after completing treatment and were returned in postage-paid envelops.
A total of 145 surveys were completed (34.5% response rate), with 47 participants seen in the cancer infusion center and 98 in other areas of the hospital. Reiki was rated as a positive experience by 94% at the cancer center and 93% of others, with 92% at the cancer center and 86% of others interested in receiving additional Reiki sessions. Symptomatic improvement was similar for people at the cancer center and others, respectively, with much to great improvement for 89% and 86% for relaxation, 75% and 75% for anxiety/worry, 81% and 78% for improved mood, 43% and 35% for improved sleep, 45% and 49% for reduced pain, 38% and 43% for reduced isolation/loneliness, 75% and 63% for improved attitude, and 30% and 30% for improved appetite. Response was unaffected by previous exposure to Reiki, massage, or other touch therapy.
Reiki results in a broad range of symptomatic benefits, including improvements in common cancer-related symptoms.
PMID:23221065 [PubMed - in process]

10. Explore (NY). 2012 Nov-Dec;8(6):353-9. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2012.08.004.
Energy therapies: focus on spirituality.
Engebretson J, Wardell DW.
University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
How are spiritual experiences described by participants of an energy based healing session?
A taxonomy of spiritual experiences (TSE), developed from previous research, provided a linguistic tool to explore and describe spiritual experiences.
A secondary qualitative analysis was conducted on a subset of existing data.
Original data was from accounts of spiritual experiences from participants in Healing Touch classes. SAMPLE SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: A purposive sample of accounts of spiritual experiences that occurred during giving or receiving an energy based healing session (n=56) was drawn from the existing data base of spiritual experience accounts. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: A top down deductive analysis using the TSE as a coding schema was applied to this sample. Comparisons were made between this subset who described their spiritual experience specifically occurring during a healing session and the original dataset of more general descriptions of a spiritual experience. Comparisons were also made between this subset and the original data as well as between giving and receiving a healing.
The components of the taxonomy were well represented and richly described as occurring during a healing session. Notable similarities between giving and receiving a healing were apparent in the descriptions of sensate experiences, ecstasy, and experiences of encounters with disincarnate guides. Healing activities are a rich context for spiritual experiences. The taxonomy provides a useful linguistic and cognitive structure for exploring spiritual experiences.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID:23141792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2012 Sep;35(5):308-12.
Reiki as a pain management adjunct in screening colonoscopy.
Bourque AL, Sullivan ME, Winter MR.
Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of Reiki decreases the amount of meperidine administered to patients undergoing screening colonoscopy. The literature review reveals limited studies to show whether Reiki has been able to decrease the amount of opioid the patient receives during screening colonoscopy. A chart review of 300 patients was conducted to obtain baseline average doses of meperidine patients received as the control. Following the chart review, 30 patients were recruited to the Reiki study. Twenty-five of the study arm patients received Reiki in conjunction with meperidine. Five randomly chosen study arm patients received placebo Reiki in conjunction with meperidine in an attempt to blind the clinicians to the treatment received by the patients. Results showed that there were no significant differences in meperidine administration between the patients in the chart review group (control) and the Reiki group. The study revealed that 16% who received Reiki, together with intravenous administration of conscious sedation, received less than 50 mg of meperidine. All the patients in the chart review group received more than 50 mg of meperidine. Results from this pilot study suggest that there may be a decrease in meperidine needed during screening colonoscopy when patients receive Reiki treatments before the procedure. A larger study powered to detect smaller medication differences is the next step in more accurately determining the effect of Reiki on pain management.
PMID:23018166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2012 Feb;16(1):43-8. doi: 10.1188/12.CJON.43-48.
Biofield therapies and cancer pain.
Anderson JG, Taylor AG.
Center for the Study of Complementary and Alternative Therapies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.
The public and healthcare professionals have become increasingly aware and accepting of the benefit in physical, psychological, social, and spiritual support for patients with cancer. Patients with cancer often seek nonpharmacologic interventions to complement conventional care and decrease the pain associated with cancer and its treatment. Most often referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these supportive therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used as adjuncts to allopathic health care. Biofield therapies are CAM modalities that involve the direction of healing energy through the hands to facilitate well-being by modifying the energy field of the body. This critical review of studies of biofield therapies emphasizes research using these modalities to decrease pain in patients with cancer. Although the therapies have demonstrated clinical efficacy, additional research is warranted. Oncology nurses should familiarize themselves with biofield therapies so they can offer informed recommendations to patients with cancer experiencing pain.
PMID:22297006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2012 Feb;28(1):55-63. doi: 10.1016/j.soncn.2011.11.006.
Energy therapies in oncology nursing.
Coakley AB, Barron AM.
Founders House 345, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 01720, USA.
To review the published research related to the interventions of Reiki, Therapeutic Touch, and Healing Touch representing energy therapies in relation to oncology nursing.
Peer-reviewed literature.
There is growing evidence that energy therapies have a positive effect on symptoms associated with cancer. While there is need for further research, it is clear that an appreciation for the value of research methods beyond the randomized control trial is important.
Energy therapies offer additional strategies for oncology nurses providing integrated nursing care to alleviate suffering and symptom distress of patients with cancer.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID:22281310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Dec;17(12):1181-90. doi: 10.1089/acm.2010.0238. Epub 2011 Dec 1.
Benefits of Reiki therapy for a severely neutropenic patient with associated influences on a true random number generator.
Morse ML, Beem LW.
Institute for Scientific Study of Consciousness, Georgetown, DE 19947, USA.
Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness.
The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG).
Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment.
The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the effectiveness of energetic therapy.
PMID:22132706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID:PMC3239316

15. Biol Res Nurs. 2011 Oct;13(4):376-82. doi: 10.1177/1099800410389166. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.
Díaz-Rodríguez L, Arroyo-Morales M, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, García-Lafuente F, García-Royo C, Tomás-Rojas I.
Nursing, University of Granada, Avda.Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain.
Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.
PMID:21821642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2011 Sep-Oct;19(5):1132-8.
The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure.
[Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish]
Díaz-Rodríguez L, Arroyo-Morales M, Cantarero-Villanueva I, Férnandez-Lao C, Polley M, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C.
Departamento de Enfermería, Universidad de Granada, Spain.
This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), α-amylase activity and blood pressure levels after the application of a Reiki session in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was conducted to compare the immediate effects of Reiki versus control intervention (Hand-off sham intervention) in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. Sample was composed of eighteen nurses (aged 34-56 years) with burnout syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a Reiki treatment or a placebo (sham Reiki) treatment, according to the established order in two different days. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction time x intervention for diastolic blood pressure (F=4.92, P=0.04) and sIgA concentration (F=4.71, P=0.04). A Reiki session can produce an immediate and statistically significant improvement in sIgA concentration and diastolic blood pressure in nurses with Burnout Syndrome.
PMID:22030577 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Holist Nurs Pract. 2011 Sep-Oct;25(5):238-45. doi: 10.1097/HNP.0b013e31822a02ad.
Reiki and its journey into a hospital setting.
Kryak E, Vitale A.
Department of Nursing Informatics, Abington Health, Pennsylvania 19001, USA.
There is a growing interest among health care providers, especially professional nurses to promote caring-healing approaches in patient care and self-care. Health care environments are places of human caring and holistic nurses are helping to lead the way that contemporary health care institutions must become holistic places of healing. The practice of Reiki as well as other practices can assist in the creation of this transformative process. Abington Memorial Hospital (AMH) in Abington, Pennsylvania is a Magnet-designated health care facility with an Integrative Medicine Services Department. AMH's Integrative Medicine staff focuses on the integration of holistic practices, such as Reiki into traditional patient care. Reiki services at AMH were initiated about 10 years ago through the efforts of a Reiki practitioner/nurse and the vision that healing is facilitated through the nurturing of the mind, body, and spirit for healing and self-healing. AMHs-sustained Reiki program includes Reiki treatments and classes for patients, health care providers, and community members. This program has evolved to include a policy and annual competency for any Reiki-trained nurse and other employees to administer Reiki treatments at the bedside.
PMID:21832928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Perm J. 2011 Summer;15(3):43-50.
Qualitative Assessment of the Impact of Implementing Reiki Training in a Supported Residence for People Older Than 50 Years with HIV/AIDS.
Mehl-Madrona L, Renfrew NM, Mainguy B.
Introduction: Reiki is a Japanese form of energy healing that has become popular in the US. Reiki training involves three stages-levels I, II, and III-to a master practitioner level and requires both giving and receiving Reiki. We set out to implement a program to train clients of a supported residence in Brooklyn, NY. They were all older than age 50 years and had HIV/AIDS and substance-abuse and/or mental-health disorders.Methods: A qualitative, narrative-inquiry study was conducted. The Reiki master kept a journal of her 3 years of providing 90 minutes of Reiki treatment and/or training once weekly at the residence. Forty-five of 50 potential participants attended these sessions with various frequencies. Stories were collected from 35 participants regarding their experience of Reiki training. We posited success as continued involvement in the program.Results: All 35 participants reported receiving benefit from participation in Reiki. Participants first took part in training because of the offered subway tokens; however, 40 continued their involvement despite a lack of compensation. When asked why they continued, participants reported life-changing experiences, including a greater ability to cope with addictions, a greater ability to manage counseling, healing of wounds, improvement of T-cell counts, and improved skills of daily living.Conclusion: Reiki training can be successfully implemented in a supported housing facility with people with HIV/AIDS and comorbid disorders. Some people in our study population reported areas of improvement and life-changing experiences. Our study did not establish the efficacy of Reiki, but our findings support the effect of the entire gestalt of implementing a program related to spirituality and healing and supports the goal of implementing a larger randomized, controlled trial in this setting to establish the efficacy of Reiki.
PMID:22058669 [PubMed] PMCID:PMC3200100

19. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2011 Jul-Sep;34(3):213-7. doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0b013e31821c684d.
Reiki therapy: a nursing intervention for critical care.
Toms R.
Nelda C. Stark College of Nursing, Texas Woman's University, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not generally associated with the complexity and intensity of critical care. Most CAM therapies involve slow, calming techniques that seem to be in direct contrast with the fast-paced, highly technical nature of critical care. However, patients in critical care often find themselves coping with the pain and stress of their illness exacerbated by the stress of the critical care environment. Complementary and alternative medicine-related research reveals that complementary therapies, such as Reiki, relieve pain and anxiety and reduce symptoms of stress such as elevated blood pressure and pulse rates. Patients and health care professionals alike have become increasingly interested in complementary and alternative therapies that do not rely on expensive, invasive technology, and are holistic in focus. Reiki is cost-effective, noninvasive, and can easily be incorporated into patient care. The purpose of this article is to examine the science of Reiki therapy and to explore Reiki as a valuable nursing intervention.
Comment in
• “Reiki therapy: a nursing intervention for critical care”. [Crit Care Nurs Q. 2011]
PMID:21670620 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Holist Nurs Pract. 2010 Sep-Oct;24(5):260-76. doi: 10.1097/HNP.0b013e3181f1adef.
The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature.
Baldwin AL, Vitale A, Brownell E, Scicinski J, Kearns M, Rand W.
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Reiki is used by a growing number of people but little is known about the scientific basis for its use.
The Touchstone Process was developed as an ongoing process to systematically analyze published, peer-reviewed studies of Reiki, the results being made accessible to the public online.
Thirteen scientifically qualified experts in the field of Reiki were assembled into 3 teams to retrieve, evaluate, and summarize articles using standardized, piloted evaluation forms.
RESULTS: Summaries of 26 Reiki articles, including strengths and weaknesses, were posted on a newly developed Web site (, together with an overall summary of the status of Reiki research and guidelines for future research: The Touchstone Process determined that only 12 articles were based on a robust experimental design and utilized well-established outcome parameters. Of these articles, 2 provided no support, 5 provided some support, and 5 demonstrated strong evidence for the use of Reiki as a healing modality.
There is a need for further high-quality studies in this area.
PMID:20706088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21. Res Gerontol Nurs. 2010 Jul;3(3):187-99. doi: 10.3928/19404921-20100601-01. Epub 2010 Jun 30.
Effects of Reiki on anxiety, depression, pain, and physiological factors in community-dwelling older adults.
Richeson NE, Spross JA, Lutz K, Peng C.
College of Nursing and Health Professions, University of Southern Maine, Portland, Maine 04104-9300, USA.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Reiki as an alternative and complementary approach to treating community-dwelling older adults who experience pain, depression, and/or anxiety. Participants (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either an experimental or wait list control group. The pre- and posttest measures included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, Faces Pain Scale, and heart rate and blood pressure. The research design included an experimental component to examine changes in these measures and a descriptive component (semi-structured interview) to elicit information about the experience of having Reiki treatments. Significant differences were observed between the experimental and treatment groups on measures of pain, depression, and anxiety; no changes in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Content analysis of treatment notes and interviews revealed five broad categories of responses: Relaxation; Improved Physical Symptoms, Mood, and Well-Being; Curiosity and a Desire to Learn More; Enhanced Self-Care; and Sensory and Cognitive Responses to Reiki.
Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
PMID:20635803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22. J Holist Nurs. 2011 Mar;29(1):33-43. doi: 10.1177/0898010110377294. Epub 2010 Aug 10.
The effect of Reiki on work-related stress of the registered nurse.
Cuneo CL, Curtis Cooper MR, Drew CS, Naoum-Heffernan C, Sherman T, Walz K, Weinberg J.
Boston Medical Center, USA.
The Reiki Master Teacher group at a large academic, urban medical center studied the effects of Reiki on work-related stress in Registered Nurse Reiki I class participants. Research suggests that work-related stress is an influential factor in nursing burn out and retention. Reiki, an ancient form of Oriental "energy work" or healing, has been found to decrease stress.
The Perceived Stress Scale tool was administered prior to the Reiki I class and after three weeks of practicing self-Reiki.
Seventeen participants returned follow-up data. Results indicated that practicing Reiki more often resulted in reduced perceived stress levels.
Data from this small pilot study supports educating nurses about Reiki practice to decrease work-related stress.
PMID:20699431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Int J Behav Med. 2010 Mar;17(1):1-16. doi: 10.1007/s12529-009-9062-4.
Biofield therapies: helpful or full of hype? A best evidence synthesis.
Jain S, Mills PJ.
UCLA Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Erratum in
• Int J Behav Med. 2011 Mar;18(1):79-82.
Biofield therapies (such as Reiki, therapeutic touch, and healing touch) are complementary medicine modalities that remain controversial and are utilized by a significant number of patients, with little information regarding their efficacy.
This systematic review examines 66 clinical studies with a variety of biofield therapies in different patient populations.
We conducted a quality assessment as well as a best evidence synthesis approach to examine evidence for biofield therapies in relevant outcomes for different clinical populations.
Studies overall are of medium quality, and generally meet minimum standards for validity of inferences. Biofield therapies show strong evidence for reducing pain intensity in pain populations, and moderate evidence for reducing pain intensity hospitalized and cancer populations. There is moderate evidence for decreasing negative behavioral symptoms in dementia and moderate evidence for decreasing anxiety for hospitalized populations. There is equivocal evidence for biofield therapies' effects on fatigue and quality of life for cancer patients, as well as for comprehensive pain outcomes and affect in pain patients, and for decreasing anxiety in cardiovascular patients.
There is a need for further high-quality studies in this area. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
PMID:19856109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID:PMC2816237

24. Prim Care. 2010 Mar;37(1):165-79.
Biofield therapies: energy medicine and primary care.
Rindfleisch JA.
Department of Family Medicine, Odana Atrium Family Medicine Clinic, University of
Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 5618 Odana Road, Madison, WI
53719, USA.
Energy medicine modalities, also known as biofield therapies, are perhaps the most mysterious and controversial complementary alternative medicine therapies. Although many of these approaches have existed for millennia, scientific investigation of these techniques is in its early stages; much remains to be learned about mechanisms of action and efficacy. These techniques are increasingly used in clinical and hospital settings and can be incorporated into an integrative primary care practice. This article describes several energy medicine and biofield therapies and outlines key elements they hold in common.
Several specific approaches are described. Research findings related to the efficacy of energy medicine are summarized, and proposed mechanisms of action and safety issues are discussed. Guidelines are offered for primary care providers wishing to advise patients about energy medicine or to integrate it into their practices, and Internet and other resources for obtaining additional information are provided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20189005

25. Holist Nurs Pract. 2010 Mar-Apr;24(2):79-88.
Energy healing and pain: a review of the literature.
Fazzino DL, Griffin MT, McNulty RS, Fitzpatrick JJ.
Prepare Me 4 Surgery, Encinitas, California, USA.
This article includes a review of the literature on research related to energy healing and pain from 1980 through 2008. The types of energy healing considered include Reiki, therapeutic touch, and healing touch. There has been limited research testing these holistic interventions and their effect on pain even though there is attention to the modalities in the nursing practice literature. Recommendations for future research include studies with larger and diverse samples and comparisons among the various modalities.
PMID: 20186018

26. Brain Res Bull. 2010 Jan 15;81(1):66-72.
A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol.
Bowden D, Goddard L, Gruzelier J.
Psychology Department, Goldsmiths, University of London, ITC Building, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, United Kingdom.
The study investigated whether participants who received Reiki would show greater health and well-being benefits than a group who received no Reiki. A method of blinding participants to Reiki was also tested, where non-contact Reiki or No-Reiki with random assignment was given to 35 healthy psychology undergraduates whose attention was absorbed in one of three tasks involving self-hypnosis/relaxation. Participants experienced ten 20-min intervention sessions over a period of two and a half to 12 weeks. Reiki was directed by the experimenter who sat behind the participants as they were absorbed in the tasks. Self-report measures of illness symptoms, mood and sleep were assessed pre-post-intervention as was salivary cortisol. While the Reiki group had a tendency towards a reduction in illness symptoms, a substantive increase was seen in the No-Reiki. The Reiki group also had a near-significant comparative reduction in stress, although they also had significantly higher baseline illness symptoms and stress scores. The Reiki blinding was successful - the groups did not differ statistically in their beliefs regarding group membership. The results are suggestive that the Reiki buffered the substantive decline in health in the course of the academic year seen in the No-Reiki group.
PMID: 19819311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27. J Holist Nurs. 2009 Dec;27(4):276-81.
Reflection of a 7-year patient care program: implementing and sustaining an integrative hospital program.
Ernst LS, Ferrer L.
Saint Barnabas Health Care System, Saint BarnabasMedical Center, 94 Old Short Hills Road, Livingston, NJ 07039, USA.
Integrative alternative therapies, also known as holistic therapies, have many applications in hospitals and health centers. These may include relaxation therapies, meditation, massage, reflexology, and Reiki or healing touch. Patients today are looking for these services, and institutions continue to explore ways to provide them without affecting their bottom line. The Integrative Cardiac Wellness Program is such a service, and its growth and longevity comes out of the personal investment of the staff to the program and to their patients. The literature review on the permanence of caring practice shows that caring about your work with patients, not just the job, is critical in longevity (Graber & Mitcham, 2004). The holistic nurses' and staff 's commitment to their professional growth within their specialty and their personal spiritual practice as experts in the field forms the backbone of the Integrative Wellness Program's success. It has been in existence for 7 years, providing integrative healing therapies to more than 7,000 patients, making it one of the most experienced. The program now serves cardiac surgery patients, and patients who have been diagnosed with cancer.
PMID: 20009019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Jul-Aug;15(4):56-7.
Effects of Reiki on pain and anxiety in the elderly diagnosed with dementia: a series of case reports.
Meland B.
Usui System of Natural Healing, Evanston, Illinois, USA.
PMID: 19623833 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29. Nurs Sci Q. 2009 Jul;22(3):250-8.
Reiki and changes in pattern manifestations.
Ring ME.
University of Vermont.
The purposes of this qualitative research study were to describe the changes in pattern manifestations that individuals experienced associated with receiving Reiki, and to present the theoretical understanding of these changes. The unitary field pattern portrait research method was utilized because it was ontologically, epistemologically, and methodologically consistent with the science of unitary human beings. Reiki was found to be associated with changes in awareness from dissonance and turbulence to harmony and well-being by helping individuals knowingly participate in actualizing their own capacities for healing. Reiki was found to be an appropriate voluntary mutual patterning nursing modality.
PMID: 19567731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30. Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2009 Jul;13(7):7.
Energy therapies. Tapping the life force to promote well-being.
[No authors listed]
PMID: 19498331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2009 Jul;13(3):215-28. Epub 2008 Jul 30.
Charge transfer in the living matrix.
Oschman JL.
Nature's Own Research Association, PO Box 1935, Dover, New Hampshire, USA.
The living matrix is defined as the continuous molecular fabric of the organism, consisting of fascia, the other connective tissues, extracellular matrices, integrins, cytoskeletons, nuclear matrices and DNA. The extracellular, cellular and nuclear biopolymers or ground substances constitute a body-wide reservoir of charge that can maintain electrical homeostasis and "inflammatory preparedness" throughout the organism. Recent research has emphasized the significance of charge transfer in relation to the scavenging or neutralization of free radicals delivered to sites of injury during and after the oxidative burst. Evidence comes from studies of the role of electrons in mitigating the consequences of inflammation when living systems are connected to the earth (earthing). The phenomenon helps explain how bodywork and movement therapies can facilitate the resolution of acute or chronic injuries, and how patients with inflammatory conditions may "deplete" a therapist during hands-on treatments. It is suggested that barefoot contact with the earth as well as hands-on and hands-off therapies facilitate healing by stimulating the migration of charges into sites of acute or chronic inflammation. One hypothesis to explain the effects of earthing is that charges from the ground substance reservoir prevent "collateral damage" to healthy tissues in the vicinity of an injury. A second hypothesis is that earthing allows electrons to replenish charge in the ground substance reservoirs, making electrons available throughout the body.
PMID: 19524846 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Int J Nurs Pract. 2009 Jun;15(3):145-55.
Facilitating comfort for hospitalized patients using non-pharmacological measures: preliminary development of clinical practice guidelines.
Williams AM, Davies A, Griffiths G.
The Western Australian Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
Nurses often use non-pharmacological measures to facilitate comfort for patients within the hospital setting. However, guidelines for use of these measures are commonly inadequate or absent. This paper presents 12 clinical practice guidelines that were developed from the findings of a literature review into non-pharmacological measures that are thought to facilitate patient comfort. The non-pharmacological measures addressed in these guidelines are: Aromotherapy, Distraction, Guided Imagery, Laughter, Massage, Music, Reiki, Heat or Cold, Meditation, Reflexology, Reposition and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. These are preliminary guidelines for the use of non-pharmacological measures and further research and development of such guidelines is recommended.
PMID: 19531072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33. Nurses' lived experience of Reiki for self-care.
Vitale A.
Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of nurses who practice Reiki for self-care. In-person interviews were conducted with 11 nurses who met specific study criteria, using open-ended questions to examine the experience of nurses who are Reiki practitioners, to understand their perceptions of Reiki use in self-treatment, and to appreciate its meaning for them. The Colaizzi method was utilized in data analysis and independent decision trail audits were completed to promote study rigor and trustworthiness of results. Thematic categories and major and minor thematic clusters emerged around the topics of daily stress management, self-healing, spirituality, and interconnectedness of self, others, and beyond. Implications of the study findings for nursing practice and nursing education are discussed. Potential applications of study findings to Jean Watson's transpersonal caring theory located within a caring science framework are explored and recommendations for future research are offered.
PMID: 19411991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009 Feb;15(1):35-7. Epub 2008 Sep 27.
Biofield therapies: biophysical basis and biological regulations?
Movaffaghi Z, Farsi M.
Clinical skills Center, Education Development Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Ahmad Abad Street, Ghaem hospital, P.O. Box 91735-345, Mashhad, Iran.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in biomedical health care. One area of alternative medicine, biofield therapies, claims to manipulate individuals 'energy field' in order to enhance healing and wellbeing. This article reviews some recent studies addressing the characterization of endogenous energy fields and the way they affect the physiologic processes.
PMID: 19161953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2008, 14(1): 37-42.
A systematic review of the use of reiki in health care
Herron-Marx S, Price-Knol F, Burden B, Hicks C. A systematic review of the use of Reiki in health care.
Authors' objectives
The main purpose of the study was to determine what the national and international evidence reveals about the use of Reiki in health care.
Authors' conclusions
This review demonstrates that Reiki has potential as both a treatment modality and an adjunct therapy in health care. However, further research is needed to establish a rigorous evidence base as a platform for the practice of Reiki.
Quantum Biology Research Lab, Northport, NY 11768, USA.
This review article extends previous scientific definitions of the biofield (endogenous energy fields of the body) to include nonclassical and quantum energy fields. The biofield is defined further in terms of its functional property to act as a resonance target for external forms of energy used as treatment modalities in energy medicine. The functional role of the biofield in the body's innate self-healing mechanisms is hypothesized, based on the concept of bioinformation which, mediated by consciousness, functions globally at the quantum level to supply coherence, phase, spin, and pattern information to regulate and heal all physiologic processes. This model is used to explain a wide variety of anomalies reported in the scientific literature, which can not be explained by traditional biophysics and bioelectromagnetics.
PMID: 15025879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Reiki for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
PMID: 18991519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

37. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD006535.
Touch therapies for pain relief in adults.
So PS, Jiang Y, Qin Y.
Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Ward 3D, Prince of Wales Hospital, Ngan Shing Street Shatin, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, HKSAR.BACKGROUND: Pain is a global public health problem affecting the lives of large numbers of patients and their families. Touch therapies (Healing Touch (HT), Therapeutic Touch (TT) and Reiki) have been found to relieve pain, but some reviews have suggested there is insufficient evidence to support their use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of touch therapies (including HT, TT, and Reiki) on relieving both acute and chronic pain; to determine any adverse effect of touch therapies. SEARCH STRATEGY: Various electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and others from their inception to June 2008 were searched. Reference lists and bibliographies of relevant articles and organizations were checked. Experts in touch therapies were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) or Controlled Clinical Trials (CCTs) evaluating the effect of touch on any type of pain were included. Similarly, only studies using a sham placebo or a 'no treatment' control was included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data was extracted and quality assessment was conducted by two independent review authors. The mean pain intensity for completing all treatment sessions was extracted. Pain intensity from different pain measurement scales were standardized into a single scale. Comparisons between the effects of treatment groups and that of control groups were made. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty four studies involving 1153 participants met the inclusion criteria. There were five, sixteen and three studies on HT, TT and Reiki respectively. Participants exposed to touch had on average of 0.83 units (on a 0 to ten scale) lower pain intensity than unexposed participants (95% Confidence Interval: -1.16 to -0.50). Results of trials conducted by more experienced practitioners appeared to yield greater effects in pain reduction. It is also apparent that these trials yielding greater effects were from the Reiki studies. Whether more experienced practitioners or certain types of touch therapy brought better pain reduction should be further investigated. Two of the five studies evaluating analgesic usage supported the claim that touch therapies minimized analgesic usage. The placebo effect was also explored. No statistically significant (P = 0.29) placebo effect was identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Touch therapies may have a modest effect in pain relief. More studies on HT and Reiki in relieving pain are needed. More studies including children are also required to evaluate the effect of touch on children.
PMID: 18843720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38. Hosp Peer Rev. 2008 Sep;33(9):121-2.
Massages, reiki, oh my! Make patients feel at home.
[No authors listed]
PMID: 18780590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

39. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol., August 1, 2008; 38(8): 512-20.
Complementary and alternative medicine in present day oncology care: promises and pitfalls.
A Munshi, LH Ni, and MS Tiwana; Department of Radiation Oncology 120, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India.

40. J Health Psychol, July 1, 2008; 13(5): 712-8.
Perceived need for spiritual and religious treatment options in chronically ill individuals.
H Dale and N Hunt; University of Nottingham, UK.
The objective of the study was to examine the desire for spiritual and religious treatment options in chronically ill adults. Email interview data (N = 12) generated themes for religion, spirituality, and desired treatments. The resultant questionnaire data (N = 83) analysed the popularity of treatments. Thirty-five wide-ranging spiritual and religious treatment options were identified for use in the questionnaire; 47 per cent of the sample was interested in spiritual or religious treatments. There is a need for spiritual and religious treatment options, and translation of treatments into practice would assist coping for many people.

41. Beginnings. 2008 Summer;28(3):4-5.
Energy and biofield therapies in practice.
Nemeth L.
Resource Development and Public Relations for AHNA.
PMID: 19271554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2008 Jun;12(3):489-94.
Reiki as a clinical intervention in oncology nursing practice.
Bossi LM, Ott MJ, DeCristofaro S.
Children's Hospital Boston, MA, USA.
Oncology nurses and their patients are frequently on the cutting edge of new therapies and interventions that support coping, health, and healing. Reiki is a practice that is requested with increasing frequency, is easy to learn, does not require expensive equipment, and in preliminary research, elicits a relaxation response and helps patients to feel more peaceful and experience less pain. Those who practice Reiki report that it supports them in self-care and a healthy lifestyle. This article will describe the process of Reiki, review current literature, present vignettes of patient responses to the intervention, and make recommendations for future study.
PMID: 18515247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

43. Explore (NY). 2008 May-Jun;4(3):201-9.
Bioenergy healing: a theoretical model and case series.
Levin J, Mead L.
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
PMID: 18466852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

44. Holist Nurs Pract. 2007 Jul-Aug;21(4):167-79; quiz 180-1.
An integrative review of Reiki touch therapy research.
Vitale A.
Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085, USA.
Reiki touch therapy is a complementary biofield energy therapy that involves the use of hands to help strengthen the body's ability to heal. There is growing interest among nurses to use Reiki in patient care and as a self-care treatment, however, with little supportive empirical research and evidence to substantiate these practices. The purpose of this integrative review is to begin the systematic process of evaluating the findings of published Reiki research. Selected investigations using Reiki for effects on stress, relaxation, depression, pain, and wound healing management, among others is reviewed and summarized. A summary of Reiki studies table illustrates the study descriptions and Reiki treatment protocols specified in the investigations. Synthesis of findings for clinical practice and implications for future research are explored.
PMID: 17627194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

45. Nurs Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;42(2):243-59, vi.
Energy-based modalities.
Engebretson J, Wardell DW.
Department of Target Populations, School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, 6901 Bertner Avenue, Room 764, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Research on touch therapies is still in the early stages of development. Studies of Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki are quite promising; however, at this point, they can only suggest that these healing modalities have efficacy in reducing anxiety; improving muscle relaxation; aiding in stress reduction, relaxation, and sense of well-being; promoting wound healing; and reducing pain. The multidimensional aspects of healing inherent in patient care continue to be expanded and facilitated by our understanding and application of energy therapies.
PMID: 17544681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

46. Oncology (Williston Park), April 1, 2007; 21(4 Suppl): 10-22; discussion 22.
Management of cancer pain with complementary therapies.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Integrative Medicine Service New York, New York, USA.
Pain is one of the most feared consequences of cancer. Pain is a major symptom in 75% of hospitalized cancer patients. Poorly relieved pain contributes to the suffering of the patient and family, which may motivate them to seek additional complementary and alternative therapies. Evidence-based complementary therapies are being used for symptom control and to improve quality of life. There is recent research on several complementary therapies-acupuncture, mind-body therapies, massage, reflexology, and Reiki--that provides evidence for pain management. These therapies are not well utilized due to a lack of information on benefits, risks, and resources. There is a call for education to alert patients, families, nurses, and physicians to the benefits of evidence-based complementary therapies and to the dangers of "unproven" cancer therapies. Oncology nurses are ideally positioned to assess patients' pain, to educate patients, to determine with the patient and physician the most appropriate and safe complementary therapy for pain, to refer patients to appropriate resources, and in some cases to provide the therapy itself. This article will discuss specific complementary therapies for pain control and will arm nurses with the confidence to intervene with knowledge, referrals, and ideas for hands-on implementation.

47. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2007 Apr;11(2):253-8
The use of biofield therapies in cancer care.
Pierce B.
Suburban Hospital, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Biofield therapies form a subcategory of the domain of energy therapies, as defined by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Specific biofield therapies addressed in this article include Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, Polarity Therapy, Reiki, and Qigong. This article will identify core concepts in biofield therapies, review controlled trials of the use of biofield therapies with patients with cancer, describe the process of biofield therapies implementation in one cancer center, and suggest research to benefit not only patients with cancer but also family members and oncology professionals.
PMID: 17573275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48. Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Mar;6(1):25-35.
Pilot crossover trial of Reiki versus rest for treating cancer-related fatigue.
Tsang KL, Carlson LE, Olson K.
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Fatigue is an extremely common side effect experienced during cancer treatment and recovery. Limited research has investigated strategies stemming from complementary and alternative medicine to reduce cancer-related fatigue. This research examined the effects of Reiki, a type of energy touch therapy, on fatigue, pain, anxiety, and overall quality of life. This study was a counterbalanced crossover trial of 2 conditions: (1) in the Reiki condition, participants received Reiki for 5 consecutive daily sessions, followed by a 1-week washout monitoring period of no treatments, then 2 additional Reiki sessions, and finally 2 weeks of no treatments, and (2) in the rest condition, participants rested for approximately 1 hour each day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 1-week washout monitoring period of no scheduled resting and an additional week of no treatments. In both conditions, participants completed questionnaires investigating cancer-related fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue subscale [FACT-F]) and overall quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, General Version [FACT-G]) before and after all Reiki or resting sessions. They also completed a visual analog scale (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) assessing daily tiredness, pain, and anxiety before and after each session of Reiki or rest. Sixteen patients (13 women) participated in the trial: 8 were randomized to each order of conditions (Reiki then rest; rest then Reiki). They were screened for fatigue on the ESAS tiredness item, and those scoring greater than 3 on the 0 to 10 scale were eligible for the study. They were diagnosed with a variety of cancers, most commonly colorectal (62.5%) cancer, and had a median age of 59 years. Fatigue on the FACT-F decreased within the Reiki condition (P=.05) over the course of all 7 treatments. In addition, participants in the Reiki condition experienced significant improvements in quality of life (FACT-G) compared to those in the resting condition (P <.05). On daily assessments (ESAS) in the Reiki condition, presession 1 versus postsession 5 scores indicated significant decreases in tiredness (P <.001), pain (P <.005), and anxiety (P<.01), which were not seen in the resting condition. Future research should further investigate the impact of Reiki using more highly controlled designs that include a sham Reiki condition and larger sample sizes.
PMID: 17351024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med., March 1, 2007; 4(1): 115-123.
Healing by Gentle Touch Ameliorates Stress and Other Symptoms in People Suffering with Mental Health Disorders or Psychological Stress.
Clare Weze, Helen L Leathard, John Grange, Peter Tiplady, and Gretchen Stevens
The Centre for Complementary Care, Muncaster Chase Ravenglass, Cumbria, CA18 1RD, Faculty of Health and Social Care, St Martin's College Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 3JD, Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, Royal Free and University College Medical School 46 Cleveland Street, London W1P 6DB and Meadow Croft, Wetheral Carlisle, Cumbria CA4 8JG, UK.
Previous studies on healing by gentle touch in clients with various illnesses indicated substantial improvements in psychological well-being, suggesting that this form of treatment might be helpful for people with impaired quality of mental health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of healing by gentle touch in subjects with self-reported impairments in their psychological well-being or mental health. One hundred and forty-seven clients who identified themselves as having psychological problems received four treatment sessions. Pre- to post-treatment changes in psychological and physical functioning were assessed by self-completed questionnaires which included visual analogue scales (VAS) and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D). Participants recorded reductions in stress, anxiety and depression scores and increases in relaxation and ability to cope scores (all P < 0.0004). Improvements were greatest in those with the most severe symptoms initially. This open study provides strong circumstantial evidence that healing by gentle touch is safe and effective in improving psychological well-being in participants with self-reported psychological problems, and also that it safely complements standard medical treatment. Controlled trials are warranted.
PMID: 17342249

50. J Holist Nurs, December 1, 2006; 24(4): 231-40; discussion 241-4.
A pilot study of healing touch and progressive relaxation for chronic neuropathic pain in persons with spinal cord injury.
DW Wardell, DH Rintala, Z Duan, and G Tan; University of Texas Houston Healthcare system, USA.
This pilot study assessed the role of Healing Touch (HT), an energy-based therapy, in modulating chronic neuropathic pain and the associated psychological distress from post spinal cord injury. Twelve veterans were assigned to either HT or guided progressive relaxation for six weekly home visits. The instruments selected showed sensitivity, although there was a large variation among the groups. There was a significant difference in the composite of interference on the Brief Pain Inventory (t = -2.71, p = .035). The mean score of the fatigue subscale of the Profile of Moods decreased (ns) in the HT group and in the subscale of confusion yet remained stable in the control group. The Diener Satisfaction With Life Scale showed increased well-being in the HT group and no change in the control group. Participants reported various experiences with HT sessions indicating that it may have benefit in the complex response to chronic pain.

51. Holist Nurs Pract. 2006 Nov-Dec;20(6):263-72; quiz 273-4.
The effect of Reiki on pain and anxiety in women with abdominal hysterectomies: a quasi-experimental pilot study.
Vitale AT, O'Connor PC.
Community Medical Center, Toms River, NJ, USA.
The purpose of this pilot study was to compare reports of pain and levels of state anxiety in 2 groups of women after abdominal hysterectomy. A quasi-experimental design was used in which the experimental group (n = 10) received traditional nursing care plus three 30-minute sessions of Reiki, while the control group (n = 12) received traditional nursing care. The results indicated that the experimental group reported less pain and requested fewer analgesics than the control group. Also, the experimental group reported less state anxiety than the control group on discharge at 72 hours post-operation. The authors recommend replication of this study with a similar population, such as women who require non-emergency caesarian section deliveries.
PMID: 17099413 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

52. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):911-3.
Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.
Crawford SE, Leaver VW, Mahoney SD.
Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point, Perry, ME, USA.
OBJECTIVES: This empirical study explored the efficacy of using Reiki treatment to improve memory and behavior deficiencies in patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. Reiki is an ancient hands-on healing technique reputedly developed in Tibet 2500 years ago. DESIGN: This study was a quasi-experimental study comparing pre- and post-test scores of the Annotated Mini-Mental State Examination (AMMSE) and Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC) after four weekly treatments of Reiki to a control group. SETTINGS/LOCATION: The participants were treated at a facility provided by the Pleasant Point Health Center on the Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation. SUBJECTS: The sample included 24 participants scoring between 20 and 24 on the AMMSE. Demographic characteristics of the sample included an age range from 60 to 80, with 67% female, 46% American Indian, and the remainder white. INTERVENTIONS: Twelve participants were exposed to 4 weeks of weekly treatments of Reiki from two Reiki Master-level practitioners; 12 participants served as controls and received no treatment. OUTCOME MEASURES: The two groups were compared on pre- and post-treatment scores on the AMMSE and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC). RESULTS: Results indicated statistically significant increases in mental functioning (as demonstrated by improved scores of the AMMSE) and memory and behavior problems (as measured by the RMBPC) after Reiki treatment. This research adds to a very sparse database from empirical studies on Reiki results. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that Reiki treatments show promise for improving certain behavior and memory problems in patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. Caregivers can administer Reiki at little or no cost, resulting in significant societal value by potentially reducing the needs for medication and hospitalization.
PMID: 17109583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; Sep2006, Vol. 12 Issue 7, p625-631,
The Effect of Johrei Healing on Substance Abuse Recovery: A Pilot Study.
Authors:Brooks, Audrey J.,Schwartz, Gary E.,Reece, Katie,Nangle, Gerry
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of Johrei healing, a form of energy healing, on substance use and psychologic symptoms in a sample of clients receiving substance abuse treatment.
Methods: Twenty-one (21) persons in residential substance-abuse treatment participated in a randomized, wait-list control pilot study of Johrei healing. Twelve (12) of the participants received three 20-minute Johreisessions for 5 weeks in addition to their regular treatment.
Results: The results are from the first treatment wave. Individual healing sessions were evaluated pre-post with the Johrei Experience Scale. Participants showed significant decreases in stress/depression and physical pain and increases in positive emotional/spiritual state, energy, and overall well-being after an individual Johrei healing session. The Global Assessment of Individual Need (GAIN), Profile of Mood States
(POMS), General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery, and 12-Step Participation scales were administered before and after the 5-week intervention to assess change in substance use, psychologic distress, mood, and 12-Step participation. Improvements in depression and trauma symptoms, externalizing behaviors (GAIN), and vigor (POMS) were found for the treatment group. Despite comparable 12-Step attendance the treatment group showed greater improvement than the wait-list control group in the use of 12-Step recovery tools. No difference in substance use was found between the two groups.
Conclusions: Variables related to substance use and relapse showed improvement in the treatment group suggesting that Johrei healing shows promise and should be studied with a larger sample, over a longer treatment period, with sham controls. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

54. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Sep;12(7):679-83.
Challenging the new orthodoxy in integrative medicine.
MacKenzie-Cook PD.
Still Waters Institute for the Study of Health in Complex Systems, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada.
This paper offers a critique of the paradigm adopted in integrative medicine. Several concerns are raised in relation to this paradigm, including the absence of any explicit and well-defined criteria for appropriate therapeutic selection or referral, inherent biases, and the significantly reduced clinical efficacy of the traditional and alternative therapies utilized. In particular, the obvious lack of a clear and cogent theoretical model for integration is noted. The central features of existing models in world medicine are outlined, and the requirements for a universal model are discussed in relation to its capacity to address the specific concerns are raised. To develop this model fully, the need to reopen critical debate on the nature of medicine, and for rigorous model testing and peer review, are noted and the challenge to do so is delivered.
PMID: 16970539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

55. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, July 1, 2006; 6(4): 347-53.
Use of complementary and alternative medicine in epilepsy.
V Ricotti and N Delanty
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become much in vogue, and CAM practitioners have increased in tandem with this. The trend of using CAM for treating epilepsy does not differ from that in other medical conditions, with nearly one half of patients using CAM. In this article we review the major complementary and alternative medicines used for treatment of epilepsy. They include mind-body medicines such as reiki and yoga; biologic-based medicine such as herbal remedies, dietary supplements, and homeopathy; and manipulative-based medicine such as chiropractic. In the available literature, there is a sense of the merit of these therapies in epilepsy, but there is a paucity of research in these areas. Individualized therapies such as homeopathy and reiki cannot be compared with medicines in a conventional pharmaceutical model. Hence, many studies are inconclusive. In a science of double-blind, randomized controlled trials, appropriate designs and outcome measurements need to be tailored to CAM. This article explains the principles of the major CAM therapies in epilepsy, and discusses peer-reviewed literature where available. More effort needs to be put into future trials, with the assistance of qualified CAM professionals to ensure conformation to their therapeutic principles.

56. Holist Nurs Pract. 2006 Jul-Aug;20(4):191-6.
The use of selected energy touch modalities as supportive nursing interventions: are we there yet?
Vitale A.
Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA.
There is growing interest among nurses in complementary therapies that are noninvasive, do not rely on expensive technology, and are holistic in focus. Besides the use of therapeutic touch, nurses are exploring other energy touch therapies, such as Reiki. This article examines the status of selected energy therapies and progress made toward nursing intervention utilization, including recommendations for nursing education applicable for 21st-century nursing practice.
PMID: 16825921 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

57. Holist Nurs Pract. 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):95-101.
A pilot study: Reiki for self-care of nurses and healthcare providers.
Brathovde A.
Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, NJ 07740, USA.
The purpose of this study was to determine if Reiki energy therapy, level I, was taught as a self-care practice to healthcare providers, would their caring perceptions change? Methodological triangulation technique, including a self-report caring scale and interviews, was used, demonstrating positive changes in perceptions of participants' caring behaviors.
PMID: 16518156 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

58. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; Jan/Feb2006, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p15-22,
Personal Interaction with a Reiki Practitioner Decreases Noise-Induced Microvascular Damage in an Animal Model.
Authors:Baldwin, Ann L.,Schwartz, Gary E.
Objective: To determine whether Reiki, a process of transmission of healing energy, can significantly reduce microvascular leakage caused by exposure to excessive noise using an animal model. Rationale: Reiki is beginning to be used in hospitals to accelerate recovery. Despite many anecdotes describing Reiki's success, few scientific studies are reported and none of those use animals. Animal models have the advantage over human subjects in that they provide well-controlled, easily interpretable experiments. The use of noise is relevant to hospital patients because of the excessive ambient noise in hospitals in the United Kingdom and United States. Loud noise can lead to several nonauditory disorders in humans and animals that impair recovery. In the rat, stress from noise damages the mesenteric microvasculature, leading to leakage of plasma into the surrounding tissue. Design: One group of four rats simultaneously received daily noise and Reiki, while two other groups received "sham" Reiki or noise alone. A fourth group did not receive noise or additional treatment. The experiment was performed three times to test for reproducibility. Outcome Measures: Average number and area of microvascular leaks to fluorescent albumin per unit length of venule.
Results: In all three experiments, Reiki significantly reduced the outcome measures compared to the other noise groups (sham Reiki and noise alone) ( p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Application of Reiki significantly reduces noise-induced microvascular leakage in an animal model. Whether or not these effects are caused by Reiki itself, or the relaxing effect of the Reiki practitioner, this procedure could be useful for minimizing effects of environmental stress on research animals and hospital patients. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

59. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; Jan/Feb2006, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p7-13,
In Vitro Effect of Reiki Treatment on Bacterial Cultures: Role of Experimental Context and Practitioner Well-Being.
Authors:Rubik, Beverly, Brooks, Audrey J., Schwartz, Gary E.
Objective: To measure effects of Reiki treatments on growth of heat-shocked bacteria, and to determine the influence of healing context and practitioner well-being. Methods: Overnight cultures of Escherichia coli K12 in fresh medium were used. Culture samples were paired with controls to minimize any ordering effects. Samples were heat-shocked prior to Reiki treatment, which was performed by Reiki practitioners for up to 15 minutes, with untreated controls. Plate-count assay using an automated colony counter determined the number of viable bacteria. Fourteen Reiki practitioners each completed 3 runs (n = 42 runs) without healing context, and another 2 runs (n = 28 runs) in which they first treated a pain patient for 30 minutes (healing context). Well-being questionnaires were administered to practitioners pre-post all sessions.
Results: No overall difference was found between the Reiki and control plates in the nonhealing context. In the healing context, the Reiki treated cultures overall exhibited significantly more bacteria than controls ( p <0.05). Practitioner social ( p < 0.013) and emotional well-being (p < 0.021) correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on bacterial cultures in the non healing context. Practitioner social ( p < 0.031), physical ( p < 0.030), and emotional ( p < 0.026) well-being correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on the bacterial cultures in the healing context. For practitioners starting with diminished well-being, control counts were likely to be higher than Reiki-treated bacterial counts. For practitioners starting with a higher level of well-being, Reiki counts were likely to be higher than control counts.
Conclusions: Reiki improved growth of heat-shocked bacterial cultures in a healing context. The initial level of well-being of the Reiki practitioners correlates with the outcome of Reiki on bacterial culture growth and is key to the results obtained. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

60. Trustee. 2005 Nov-Dec;58(10):14-6, 21-2, 1.
Integrating integrative medicine--a how-to guide.
Larson L.
Adding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to your hospital's treatment options doesn't have to be complicated or expensive--and the consumer appeal may be well worth it.
PMID: 16382730 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

61. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2005 Oct-Dec;41(4):184-7.
The use of Reiki in psychotherapy.
LaTorre MA.
PMID: 16297024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

62. Orthop Nurs, July 1, 2005; 24(4): 259-69.
Energy healing: a complementary treatment for orthopaedic and other conditions.
EM DiNucci; Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

63. Inside Business. July 2005 v7 i7 pSS9(1).
The role of Reiki in cancer treatment.(Community Health Partners Regional Health System)(Disease/Disorder overview)
Wendy Langenderfer.
Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2005 Great Lakes Publishing Company

64. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):455-7.
Positive well-being changes associated with giving and receiving Johrei healing.
Reece K, Schwartz GE, Brooks AJ, Nangle G.
Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0068, USA.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of giving and receiving Johrei, a spiritual energy healing practice, on measures of well-being. METHODS: Participants (N = 236) rated 21 items pertaining to feelings plus an overall well-being measure, before and after a Johrei session. RESULTS: Receivers experienced a significantly greater decrease in negative emotional state than givers; however, givers and receivers experienced a comparable increase in positive emotional state and overall well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The practice of Johrei and other energy and spiritual healing techniques, may have positive health effects for givers as well as receivers. Future research examining different energy and spiritual healing practices (for example, Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) and using various control groups (for example, treatment-naive subjects instructed to "send loving energy") can explore the generality and mechanisms underlying these apparently robust effects.
PMID: 15992229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

65. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2005 May;11(5):248-53.
The increasing use of reiki as a complementary therapy in specialist palliative care.
Burden B, Herron-Marx S, Clifford C.
Compton Hospice, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, UK.
Palliative medicine and complementary therapies (CTs) have developed within the NHS as parallel philosophies of care. As a result, the last decade has seen an increase in the integration and usage of CTs, as adjunct therapies to conventional medical treatment. Documented benefits of relaxation, decreased perception of pain, reduced anxiety and improved sense of wellbeing have been shown to enable an enhanced quality of life, where curative treatment is no longer an option. Reiki is a more recent addition to the range of CTs available to cancer patients. As an energy-healing intervention it has gained in popularity as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the profound relaxation effect has a positive impact on alleviating anxiety, stress, perception of pain and promotes a feeling of wellbeing particularly relating to the nature of psychospiritual wellbeing. However, there is very little evidence to support its application within clinical practice, and none within the specific field of specialist palliative care (SPC). This article will consider the position of reiki as an emerging CT within SPC. The function of the hospice movement, the role of CTs together with an understanding of energy healing will also be explored. Within this context, the rise in popularity of reiki and its potential benefits for SPC patients will be discussed. These considerations will then form the basis of the justification for further research in SPC.
PMID: 15944500 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

66. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1077-81.
Autonomic nervous system changes during Reiki treatment: a preliminary study.
Mackay N, Hansen S, McFarlane O.
Institute of Neurological Sciences, South Glasgow University Hospital NHS Trust, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF, Scotland, UK.
OBJECTIVES: to investigate if a complementary therapy, Reiki, has any effect on indices of autonomic nervous system function. DESIGN: Blind trial. SETTING/LOCATION: Quiet room in an out-patient clinic. SUBJECTS: Forty-five (45) subjects assigned at random into three groups. Interventions: Three treatment conditions: no treatment (rest only); Reiki treatment by experienced Reiki practitioner; and placebo treatment by a person with no knowledge of Reiki and who mimicked the Reiki treatment. OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative measures of autonomic nervous system function such as heart rate, cardiac vagal tone, blood pressure, cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex, and breathing activity were recorded continuously for each heartbeat. Values during and after the treatment period were compared with baseline data.
RESULTS: Heart rate and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the Reiki group compared to both placebo and control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that Reiki has some effect on the autonomic nervous system. However, this was a pilot study with relatively few subjects and the changes were relatively small. The results justify further, larger studies to look at the biological effects of Reiki treatment.
PMID: 15674004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1107-13.
Biofield energy healing from the inside.
Warber SL, Cornelio D, Straughn J, Kile G.
University of Michigan, Michigan Integrative Medicine, 715 East Huron Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1555, USA.
OBJECTIVES: Biofield energy healing involves controversial concepts, and although numerous controlled trials have evaluated the effects, little attention has been paid to the phenomenon from the perspective of the therapists themselves. DESIGN: Qualitative research. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Large Midwest metropolitan area. Interviews were generally conducted in the therapists' place of business. SUBJECTS: Experienced biofield energy therapists from several different disciplines. INTERVENTIONS: In-depth semistructured interviews, tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, videotapes of demonstrations. OUTCOME MEASURES: We used a grounded theory approach to uncover relevant dimensions and themes related to the process of biofield energy healing.
RESULTS: Major overall themes related to the "nature of energy" and the "healer-client relationship." Seven dimensions of the nature of energy include sources of energy, entities with energy, human energy anatomy, descriptions of energy, movement of energy, action of energy, and perception of energy. The dimensions build on one another to describe an energetic world view. The other major theme, the healer-client relationship, contains the central concept of healing facilitation as the goal of the experience. Compatibility and collaboration are critical to that process, as are creating a sense of trust and adhering to ethical standards. Communication underpins the whole process.
CONCLUSIONS: The biofield energy therapists share a common energetic world view, wherein they must surrender to a universal energy while simultaneously creating a therapeutic alliance with the client who is also an active agent in healing process. This understanding has the potential to alter our assumptions about in biofield energy healing.
PMID: 15674009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

68. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Sep-Oct;10(5):48-56.
Integrative healthcare: arriving at a working definition.
Boon H, Verhoef M, O'Hara D, Findlay B, Majid N.
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto.
A variety of integrative healthcare programs and clinics have been initiated both in Canada and the United States. Many different terms (eg, integrative medicine, integrated medicine, multidisciplinary care, integrative health care) are used to describe these initiatives. The diversity of terminology and absence of a shared conceptual framework makes it difficult to assess when integration is actually happening. The objective of this paper was to explore current efforts to conceptualize integrative healthcare and to identify its components. A qualitative content analysis of articles identified in an extensive literature review resulted in the identification of four key components of integrative care: philosophy/values, structure, process and outcomes. These were used to guide the development of a definition of integrative healthcare that should be seen as an "ideal type" or goal toward which practitioners and health systems could strive.
PMID: 15478786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

69. Home Health Care Management & Practice, Vol. 16, No. 6, 480-486 (2004)
Reiki: The Re-Emergence of an Ancient Healing Art in Modern Times
Theresa C. Gilberti, PhD
Reiki has experienced a tremendous rebirth and expansion since its rediscovery by Dr. Mikao Usui in the early 1900s. The number of Reiki practitioners has grown to several hundred thousand worldwide. After Reiki instruction and attunements by a Reiki master/teacher, the practitioners, through intention alone, pull concentrated life force into their bodies and pass it through the hands to the client. The Reiki session places the client into a deep state of relaxation and peace, allowing the body to rebalance and heal. Reiki is not a religion, dogma, or creed, nor can it create or cause anyone harm. In fact, Reiki is beneficial to the practitioner and the client. Anyone can learn Reiki. There are no special skills or education necessary to learn this ancient healing art—only an open mind and heart.
DOI: 10.1177/1084822304265847

70. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 May-Jun;10(3):42-8.
Long-term effects of energetic healing on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress.
Shore AG.
The long-term effects of energetic healing were examined in an experimental design employing a 3 x 3 factorial MANOVA on symptoms of psychological depression and self-perceived stress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness, and Perceived Stress scales. Forty-six participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: hands-on Reiki, distance Reiki, or distance Reiki placebo, and remained blind to treatment condition. Each participant received a 1 to 1.5 hour treatment each week for 6 weeks. Pretest data collected prior to treatment demonstrated no preexisting significant differences among groups. Upon completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of psychological distress in treatment groups as compared with controls (P < .05; Eta square ranging from .09-.18), and these differences continued to be present 1 year later (P < .05; Eta square ranging from .12-.44).
PMID: 15154152 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

71. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Feb-March 2004 i247-248 p26(1).
Jule Klotter.
Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2004 The Townsend Letter Group

72. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;10(1):14.
Holistic nursing and spiritual healing.
Mills CL.
PMID: 14727494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

73. Director. 2003 Winter;11(1):33-4.
Comment in:

74. Director. 2003 Spring;11(2):46.

75. Integrative care--Reiki.
Eliopoulos C.
PMID: 12630139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

76. Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine
Science, Research Methods and Clinical Implications
edited by Jonas, Wayne B., Crawford Cindy C.
This book has a 30 page annotated bibliography and a 48 page comprehensive bibliography. The authors found over 2200 published reports, including books, articles, dissertations, abstracts and other writings on spiritual healing, energy medicine, and mental intention effects.
published by Churchill Livingstone an imprint of Elsevier Limited

77. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003 Nov;26(5):990-7.
A phase II trial of Reiki for the management of pain in advanced cancer patients.
Olson K, Hanson J, Michaud M.
Faculty of Nursing and International Institute for Qualitative Methodology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
This trial compared pain, quality of life, and analgesic use in a sample of patients with cancer pain (n=24) who received either standard opioid management plus rest (Arm A) or standard opioid management plus Reiki (Arm B). Participants either rested for 1.5 hr on Days 1 and 4 or received two Reiki treatments (Days 1 and 4) one hour after their first afternoon analgesic dose. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain ratings, blood pressure, heart rate, and respirations were obtained before and after each treatment/rest period. Analgesic use and VAS pain scores were reported for 7 days. Quality of life was assessed on Days 1 and 7. Participants in Arm B experienced improved pain control on Days 1 and 4 following treatment, compared to Arm A, and improved quality of life, but no overall reduction in opioid use. Future research will determine the extent to which the benefits attributed to Reiki in this study may have been due to touch.
PMID: 14585550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78. Holist Nurs Pract. 2003 Jul-Aug;17(4):209-17
Reiki therapy: the benefits to a nurse/Reiki practitioner.
Whelan KM, Wishnia GS.
Graduate Family Nurse Practitioner Program, Spalding University, Louisville, KY, USA.
This study evaluates how nurses who gave Reiki therapy perceived the benefit of this therapy on their clients and on themselves concurrently as providers of the therapy. As an adjunct, the study's purpose was to enhance the understanding and credibility of nurse/Reiki practitioners.
PMID: 12889549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

79. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2003 May-Jun;20(3):221-8.
Integrating complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into standard hospice and palliative care.
Lewis CR, de Vedia A, Reuer B, Schwan R, Tourin C.
Center for Palliative Studies, San Diego Hospice, San Diego, California, USA.
In the United States, there are 629 million visits to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers each year. Many adults appear to value both conventional and CAM approaches. Because of this public interest and promising evidence that CAM relieves suffering and improves quality of life, we established a program of CAM, known as Integrative Palliative Care (IPC), in a US hospice. This paper outlines our strategy of collaborative relationships with community schools of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), massage, and harp therapy. It also describes the use of volunteers and small grants and donations to develop and maintain a program of CAM in the hospice setting. The difficulties of research design, problems with tracking outcomes, and the shortcomings of providing therapies with this model are discussed.
PMID: 12785044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80. Neurology India. April-June 2003 v51 i2 pNA.
Changes in the isoprenoid pathway with transcendental meditation and Reiki healing practices in seizure disorder.
R. Kumar, P. Kurup.
Full Text: COPYRIGHT 2003 Medknow Publications

81. J N Y State Nurses Assoc. 2003 Spring-Summer;34(1):32-8.
The spirit of healing: how to develop a spiritually based personal and professional practice.
Fortune M, Price MB.
Visiting Nurse Service, New York in New York City, USA.
The idea of healing must be considered within the context of a holistic approach to nursing practice. The authors put forth the premise that a Spirit of Healing enters into the nurse-client relationship or into any care-giving situation. This spirit is defined as a universal energy source that is accessed through imagery, therapeutic touch, Reiki, and other related interventions. Case studies are provided as illustrations, and the authors include self-help exercises and related definitions to enhance understanding and practice. The authors explore energetic techniques to treat and prevent burnout for nurses, identify specific ways to practice nursing from a holistic perspective, and consider the possibility of transforming nursing into a change agent that will redefine the healthcare system.
PMID: 14639779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

82. J N Y State Nurses Assoc. 2003 Spring-Summer;34(1):9-13.
Reiki: a supportive therapy in nursing practice and self-care for nurses.
Gallob R.
University of Rochester School of Nursing, Loving Touch Center of East Rochester, NY, USA.
Reiki is a complementary, energy-based healing modality. It has ancient roots, but is uniquely suited to modern nursing practice. Reiki training offers a precise technique for tapping into healing energy, or ki, and transmitting it through touch. Reiki treatments are gently balancing and provide energy that supports the well-being of the recipient in a holistic and individualistic way. Relaxation, pain relief, physical healing, reduced emotional distress, and a deepened awareness of spiritual connection are among the benefits attributed to Reiki in anecdotes, case studies, and exploratory research, as summarized in this review of literature. Reiki is easily adaptable to nursing practice in a variety of settings, and can provide support for the practitioners of Reiki themselves, as well as benefiting those they treat with Reiki.
PMID: 14639776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

83. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Mar-Apr;9(2):120, 118.
Enhancing the treatment of HIV/AIDS with Reiki training and treatment.
Schmehr R.
HIV Center of St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, USA.
PMID: 12652892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

84. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2003 Jan-Feb;7(1):89-91.
What are the distinctions between Reiki and therapeutic touch?
Potter P.
Yale-New Haven Hospital, School of Nursing, Yale University, USA.
PMID: 12629941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

85. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine; Dec2002, Vol. 8 Issue 6, p703-717,
The Biofield Hypothesis: Its Biophysical Basis and Role in Medicine.
Rubik, Beverly
This paper provides a scientific foundation for the biofield: the complex, extremely weak electromagnetic field of the organism hypothesized to involve electromagnetic bioinformation for regulating homeodynamics. The biofield is a useful construct consistent with bioelectromagnetics and the physics of nonlinear, dynamical, nonequilibrium living systems. It offers a unifying hypothesis to explain the interaction of objects or fields with the organism, and is especially useful toward understanding the scientific basis of energy medicine, including acupuncture, biofield therapies, bioelectromagnetic therapies, and homeopathy. The rapid signal propagation of electromagnetic fields comprising the biofield as well as its holistic properties may account for the rapid, holistic effects of certain alternative and complementary medical interventions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

86. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Dec;8(6):755-63
Effect of Reiki treatments on functional recovery in patients in poststroke rehabilitation: a pilot study.
Shiflett SC, Nayak S, Bid C, Miles P, Agostinelli S.
Continuum Center for Health and Healing, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA.
OBJECTIVES: The three objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki as an adjunctive treatment for patients with subacute stroke who were receiving standard rehabilitation as inpatients, (2) to evaluate a double-blinded procedure for training Reiki practitioners, and (3) to determine whether or not double-blinded Reiki and sham practitioners could determine which category they were in. DESIGN: A modified double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial with an additional historic control condition. SETTING: The stroke unit of a major rehabilitation hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty (50) inpatients with subacute ischemic stroke, 31 male and 19 female. INTERVENTIONS: There were four conditions: Reiki master, Reiki practitioner, sham Reiki, and no treatment (historic control). Subjects received up to 10 treatments over a 2(1/2)-week period in addition to standard rehabilitation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Functional independence measure (FIM), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression (CES-D) measure.
RESULTS: No effects of Reiki were found on the FIM or CES-D, although typical effects as a result of age, gender, and time in rehabilitation were detected. Blinded practitioners (sham or reiki) were unable to determine which category they were in. Sham Reiki practitioners reported greater frequency of feeling heat in the hands compared to Reiki practitioners. There was no reported difference between the sham and the real Reiki practitioners in their ability to feel energy flowing through their hands. Post hoc analyses suggested that Reiki may have had limited effects on mood and energy levels.
CONCLUSION: Reiki did not have any clinically useful effect on stroke recovery in subacute hospitalized patients receiving standard-of-care rehabilitation therapy. Selective positive effects on mood and energy were not the result of attentional or placebo effects.
PMID: 12614528 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

87. J Adv Nurs, February 1, 2001; 33(4): 439-45.
Biological correlates of Reiki Touch(sm) healing.
DW Wardell and J Engebretson
School of Nursing, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

88. Holist Nurs Pract. 2000 Apr;14(3):21-9.
The empowering nature of Reiki as a complementary therapy.
Nield-Anderson L, Ameling A.
Yale University School of Nursing, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Reiki is an ancient healing method with roots in both Chinese Medicine and Christian healing. It is a treatment used by individuals as an alternative and complement to Western medical treatment. Reiki has increased in popularity over the past decade, but remains understudied. Methodological and philosophical reasons for why it is difficult to conduct research on the efficacy of Reiki are discussed. The reasons for the increased success of Reiki as an alternative and complementary healing method in the Western world are addressed, as well as the practice of Reiki as a healing method for self and others.
PMID: 12119625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

89. J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Apr;5(2):153-64
A study to test the effectiveness of placebo Reiki standardization procedures developed for a planned Reiki efficacy study.
Mansour AA, Beuche M, Laing G, Leis A, Nurse J.
College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Reiki is one type of alternative therapy that is increasing in popularity. It is advocated by its practitioners as a precise method for connecting universal life energy with the body's innate process of healing through hands-on techniques. The claim of Reiki practitioners is that Reiki reduces a variety of physical problems and improves psychospiritual well-being. There are abundant anecdotal records that support the previous claim, and a few pioneer scientific studies are starting to emerge. Although the Reiki research in totality supports the anecdotal records, the absence of randomized and placebo-controlled trials precludes the interpretation of the outcomes as resulting from specific effects as opposed to placebo effects plus natural history. Authorities in the field indicate that researchers interested in placebo-controlled studies should have the placebo treatment look exactly like the real intervention in every respect. Because no studies could be found in the literature that tested standardization procedures for real and placebo Reiki, the decision was made to conduct one. The purpose of this study was to test the standardization procedures developed by our research team for placebo Reiki, before going ahead and conducting our planned full-scale randomized and placebo-controlled Reiki efficacy study. This study used a 4-round, crossover experimental design in which 20 blinded subjects (12 students, 4 breast cancer survivors, and 4 observers) were exposed to a combination of 2 interventions (Reiki plus Reiki, or placebo plus placebo, or Reiki plus placebo, or placebo plus Reiki); and were then asked to evaluate the interventions using a self-administered questionnaire. The blinded observers were used in round number 4. Two real Reiki practitioners in the Usui system were chosen first, then 2 placebo practitioners who closely resembled them were recruited. The placebo practitioners were trained in Reiki by the study Reiki Master and the principal investigator, but were not initiated. The belief in Reiki is that only practitioners that are initiated could give Reiki, thus making it possible to have a placebo arm in efficacy studies. The findings of the study indicate that the developed standardization procedures were successful because none of the final participants in round 4 (4 breast cancer patients and 4 observers) could differentiate between the identity of placebo and Reiki practitioners. The qualitative comments expressed by the participants further con-firmed the quantitative data. It was concluded based on these findings that it is safe to go ahead and conduct the planned randomized 3-arm Reiki efficacy clinical trial. It is recommended that scholars interested in Reiki research could incorporate our techniques to strengthen their designs by adding a placebo arm.
PMID: 10328637 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

90. Imprint. 1999 Feb-Mar;46(2):31-3, 56.
Reiki therapy--a tool for wellness.
Rivera C.
Schneider's Children Hospital, USA.
PMID: 10373831 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91. RN. 1996 Feb;59(2):57-9.
Reiki: an ancient touch therapy.
van Sell SL.

Disclaimer: The remedies and therapies suggested in this website are not intended to replace existing medical treatment, or to provide a diagnosis. Please consult with your Health Care Provider before using any Complementary Therapy.